SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN / FEBRUARY 2015 / by Caitlin Murray

CLIFTON SUSPENSION BRIDGE (OPENED 1864)

CLIFTON SUSPENSION BRIDGE (OPENED 1864)

SUTONG YANGTZE RIVER BRIDGE (OPENED 2008)

SUTONG YANGTZE RIVER BRIDGE (OPENED 2008)

about one in 10 bridges in the US are "structurally deficient" / In a suspension structure, such as the Golden Gate Bridge, there are two sets of cables: primary cables that connect the towers to one another and secondary cables that hang from the first set and hold the roadbed in place / A cable-stayed bridge has only cable that run directly from the towers to the road / the weight of the road deck of a cable-stayed bridge is balanced evenly on each side of its towers so it does not need large anchors / life span of 50 versus 50 years


In February 2009, the US's Iridium 33 satellite collided with the Russian Cosmos 2241, instantly destroying both communications satellites / satellite owners view the locations and trajectories of their on-orbit assets as private / must trust a mutual third party / cryptography 

Lulglxp 33
Frvprv 2241

9-18-9-4-9-21-13 -3-3
3-15-19-13-15-19-2-2-4-1

Gtoiktn  33
Bntnpx 2251C

Ii Co2rdu 3
oms25im3s 1

Vv Pb2eqh 3
bzf25vz3f 1


350,000 to 39,000 years ago (Neandertals) / equivocal signals about the Neandertal mind / right-handers - a strong tendency towards favoring the right hand is one of the traits that distinguishes H. sapiens from chimpanzees and corresponds to asymmetries in the brain that are believed to be related to language / LANGUAGE AND ASYMMETRY / FOXP2 gene / Neandertals interbred with H. sapiens after our species left Africa / Neandertal DNA lives on in may people as a result of long-ago mixing / "we know next to nothing about Neandertal cognition from genetic because we know next to nothing about modern human cognition from genetics" / Neandertals and H. sapiens overlapped for thousands of years in some places / 1990s discovery of a handful of decorative items and advanced tools attributed to Neandertals / Anatomically modern humans appear to have reached Europe by around 44,000 to 41,500 years ago / Gorham's cave /

red ochre

Fe2O3

(hematite)

symbolic thought / "The history of all forms is that they go extinct...It's just what happens"


"EVENT HORIZON" (a sphere of no return where the gravitational field becomes infinite) / a boundary beyond which events cannot affect and outside observer / Hawkings (1974) small amounts of radiation can escape a black hole / quantum physics allows for particles to tunnel through otherwise impassable obstacles / the space elevator /